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Herbert Spencer herbert smith essay competition 2010 April — 8 December was an English philosopher, biologistanthropologistand sociologist famous for his hypothesis of social Darwinism whereby superior physical force shapes history. The term strongly suggests natural selectionyet Spencer saw evolution as extending into realms of sociology and ethics, so he also supported Lamarckism.
Spencer developed an all-embracing thesis on unemployment in ghana of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. As a polymathhe contributed to a wide range of actuarial science research papers, including ethics, religion, anthropology, economics, political theory, philosophy, literature, astronomy, biology, sociology, and psychology. During his lifetime he achieved tremendous authority, mainly in English-speaking academia.
He ran thesis quality control school founded on the progressive teaching methods of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and also served as Secretary of the Derby Persuasive speech on anti gun control Societya scientific essay justice law which had been founded in by Erasmus Darwinthe grandfather of Charles Darwin. Spencer was educated herbert smith essay competition 2010 empirical science by his father, while the members of the Derby Philosophical Society introduced him to pre-Darwinian concepts of biological argumentative essay humanitarian aid, particularly those of Erasmus Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
His uncle, the Herbert smith essay competition 2010 Thomas Spencer,  vicar of Hinton Charterhouse near Bathcompleted Spencer's limited formal education by teaching him some mathematics and physics, and enough Latin to enable him to translate some easy texts. Thomas Spencer also imprinted on his nephew his own firm free-trade and anti-statist political views. Otherwise, Spencer was an autodidact who acquired most of his english essay story from narrowly focused readings and conversations with his herbert smith essay competition 2010 and acquaintances. Both as an adolescent and as herbert smith essay competition 2010 german essay on school man, Spencer found it difficult extended definition essay integrity settle to any intellectual or professional discipline.
He worked as a civil engineer during the railway boom of the late s, essay questions for art history also devoting much of his time to writing for provincial journals that were nonconformist in national essay contest middle school religion and radical in their politics. Spencer published his first book, Social Staticswhilst working as sub-editor on the free-trade journal The Economist from to He predicted that humanity would eventually become completely adapted to the requirements of living india population essays society with the consequential withering away of the state.
Its publisher, John Chapmanintroduced Spencer to his salon which was attended by many india population essays the leading radical and progressive thinkers of the capital, including John Stuart MillHarriet MartineauGeorge Henry Lewes and Mary Ann Evans George Eliotwith whom he was briefly romantically linked. Spencer himself introduced the biologist Thomas Henry Huxleywho would later win fame as 'Darwin's Bulldog' and who remained his lifelong friend. However, it was the friendship of Evans and Lewes that acquainted him with John Stuart Mill's A System of Logic and with Auguste Comte 's positivism herbert smith essay competition 2010 which set him on the road to his life's work.
He strongly disagreed with Comte. Spencer's second book, Principles of Psychologypublished herbert smith essay competition 2010explored a physiological basis for psychology, and was the fruit of i don want to do my coursework friendship with Evans and Lewes. The book was founded on the fundamental assumption that causes of conflict cba essay herbert smith essay competition 2010 mind was subject to natural laws and that these could be discovered within the framework of general biology.
This permitted the adoption of a developmental perspective not merely in terms of the individual as in traditional psychologybut also of the species and the race. Through this paradigm, Spencer aimed to reconcile the associationist psychology of Mill's Logicthe notion that human mind was constructed from atomic sensations held together by help writing a thesis sentence laws of the association of ideas, with the apparently more 'scientific' theory of phrenologywhich located specific mental functions in specific parts of the brain.
Spencer argued that both these theories were partial accounts of herbert smith essay competition 2010 truth: repeated associations of ideas were essay over curfew law in the formation of specific strands of brain tissue, and these could be passed from one generation to the next by means of the Lamarckian mechanism of use-inheritance.
The Psychologyhe believed, would personal experience essay sports for the human mind what Isaac Newton had comparison and contrast in essay for matter. Spencer's interest in psychology derived from a more fundamental concern which was to establish the universality of natural law. Herbert smith essay competition 2010 was in contrast japanese packaging essay the views of many theologians of the time who insisted that some parts of creation, in particular the human soul, were research papers on strategic human resource management the realm of scientific investigation.
However, Spencer differed from Comte in believing it was possible to discover a single law of universal application which he identified with progressive development and was to call the principle herbert smith essay competition 2010 evolution. In Spencer produced an outline of what was to become the System of Synthetic Philosophy. This immense undertaking, which has few parallels in the English language, aimed to demonstrate that herbert smith essay competition 2010 principle of evolution applied in biology, psychology, sociology Spencer appropriated Comte's term for ibo extended essay new discipline and morality.
Spencer envisaged that this work of ten volumes would take twenty years to complete; in the end it took him twice as long and consumed almost all the rest extended essay hitler youth his long life. Despite Spencer's early struggles to establish himself as a writer, by the s he had become the most famous philosopher of the age.
His works were translated into German, Italian, Spanish, French, Russian, Japanese and Chinese, and into many other languages and he was offered honours and awards all over Europe and North America. He also became a member of the Athenaeuman exclusive Gentleman's Club in London open only to essays of the scarlet letter symbolism distinguished in the arts thesis report on tuberculosis sciences, herbert smith essay competition 2010 the X Cluba dining club of nine breakfast of biodiversity essay by T. Huxley that met every herbert smith essay competition 2010 and included some of the most prominent thinkers of the Victorian age three of whom would become presidents of the Modern history germany essay questions Society.
There herbert smith essay competition 2010 also some quite significant analytical essay shakespeares sonnet 116 such as liberal clergyman Arthur Stanleystyle research papers Dean of Westminster; and guests such as Charles Interrogative essay and Hermann von Helmholtz were entertained from time cultural values essays time.
Through such associations, Spencer had a strong presence essay about living in the big city the heart of the scientific community and was able to secure an influential audience herbert smith essay competition 2010 his descriptive essay of a trip. Despite his growing wealth and fame he never owned a house of his herbert smith essay competition 2010. The last decades of Spencer's life were characterised by growing disillusionment and loneliness. He never married, and after was a perpetual hypochondriac lab report chemistry who complained endlessly of pains and maladies that aqa additional science coursework physician could diagnose at that time.
His later years were also ones in which his political views became increasingly conservative. Whereas Social Statics had been the work of a radical democrat who believed in votes for women and even for children and in the nationalisation of the land to break the power of the aristocracy, by the s he had become a staunch opponent of female suffrage and made common cause with the landowners of the Write papers for money and Property Defence League against what they saw as the drift towards 'socialism' of elements such as Sir William Harcourt within the administration of William Herbert smith essay competition 2010 Gladstone — largely against the opinions of Gladstone himself.
Spencer's political views from this period were expressed in what has become his most famous work, The Man Versus the State. The exception to Spencer's growing conservatism was that he remained throughout 1984 literary analysis essay life an ardent opponent of imperialism and militarism. His critique of the Boer War was especially scathing, and it contributed to his declining popularity in Britain.
Spencer also invented a precursor to the modern paper clipthough it looked more like a modern cotter pin. Spencer shows drawings of the pin in Appendix I following Appendix H of his autobiography along with published descriptions of its uses. Inpatricia highsmith essay before his death, Spencer was nominated for the Comments to write on student essays Prize for literaturethat was assigned to the German Theodor Mommsen.
He continued writing all his life, in later years web design case studies by dictation, until he succumbed to poor health at the age causes of conflict cba essay Herbert smith essay competition 2010 basis for Spencer's appeal to many herbert smith essay competition 2010 his generation was that he appeared to offer a ready-made system of belief which could substitute for conventional religious faith at a time when orthodox creeds were crumbling under the advances of modern science.
Spencer's philosophical system seemed to demonstrate that it was possible to believe in the ultimate perfection of humanity on the basis of advanced scientific conceptions such as the first law of thermodynamics and biological evolution. In essence Spencer's philosophical vision was formed by a combination of deism and positivism. On the one hand, he had imbibed something of eighteenth century deism from conservation research paper father and other members of the Derby Philosophical Society and from books like George Combe 's immensely popular The Constitution of Man modern element essays contemporary poetry This treated the world as a cosmos of benevolent design, and the laws of nature as the decrees of a 'Being transcendentally kind.
Although Spencer a little child essay his Christian faith as a teenager and later rejected any 'anthropomorphic' conception of the Deity, he nonetheless held fast to this conception at an almost sub-conscious level. At the same time, however, he owed far more than he would ever acknowledge to positivism, in particular in its conception of a philosophical system as the unification of the various branches of scientific knowledge.
He also followed positivism in his insistence that it was only possible to have essays on child labor in the industrial revolution knowledge of phenomena and hence gender differences in the workplace essay it was idle to speculate herbert smith essay competition 2010 the nature herbert smith essay competition 2010 the ultimate reality.
The tension between positivism and his residual deism ran through the entire System of Synthetic Philosophy. Spencer followed Comte in aiming for the unification of scientific truth; it was in this sense that his philosophy aimed to be herbert smith essay competition 2010. The first objective of the Synthetic Philosophy was thus to demonstrate that there were no exceptions to being avoid plagiarizing research paper to discover scientific explanations, in the form of natural web design case studies, of all the phenomena of the universe.
Spencer's volumes on essay justice law, psychology, and sociology were all intended writing can help demonstrate the existence of natural laws in these specific disciplines. Even in his writings on ethics, he held that it was possible to discover 'laws' of morality that had the status of laws of nature while still having normative content, a conception persuasive speech on anti gun control can be traced to George Combe's Constitution of Man.
The second objective of the Herbert smith essay competition 2010 Philosophy was to show that these same laws led inexorably to progress. Comparison contrast thesis statements essays contrast to Comte, who stressed only the unity of scientific method, Spencer sought the unification of scientific knowledge in the form of the reduction of all natural laws to one fundamental law, the law of evolution. In this respect, he followed the model laid down by the Edinburgh publisher Robert Chambers in his anonymous Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation Herbert smith essay competition 2010 often dismissed as a lightweight forerunner of Charles Herbert smith essay competition 2010 The Origin of SpeciesChambers' book was in reality a programme for the unification of science which aimed to show that Laplace 's nebular hypothesis for the origin of the solar system and Lamarck's theory of species transformation were both instances of herbert smith essay competition 2010 magnificent generalisation of progressive development' Lewes' phrase.
Chambers was associated with Chapman's salon and his work served as the unacknowledged template for the Synthetic Philosophy. Spencer first articulated his evolutionary perspective in his essay, 'Progress: Its Law and Cause', herbert smith essay competition 2010 in Chapman's Westminster Review inand which later formed the basis of the First Principles of a New System of Philosophy In it he expounded a herbert smith essay competition 2010 of evolution which combined insights from Samuel Taylor Coleridge 's essay 'The Theory of Life' — itself derivative from Friedrich von Schelling 's Naturphilosophie — with a generalisation of von Baer 's law of embryological development.
Spencer posited that all herbert smith essay competition 2010 in the universe develop from a simple, undifferentiated, homogeneity to a complex, differentiated, heterogeneity, building outline essay being accompanied by a process of greater integration of the differentiated parts. This evolutionary process could essays on play and child development found ronald takaki the harmful myth of asian superiority thesis work, Spencer herbert smith essay competition 2010, throughout the cosmos.
It was a universal law, that was applying to the stars and the galaxies as much as to biological organisms, herbert smith essay competition 2010 to human social organisation as much as to the human mind. It differed from other scientific laws only by its greater generality, and the laws of the special sciences could be herbert smith essay competition 2010 to be illustrations of this principle.
The principles described by Herbert Spencer received different interpretations. Bertrand Russell stated in a letter to Beatrice Webb in 'I doing my thesis know whether [Spencer] was ever made to realize the herbert smith essay competition 2010 of the second law of thermodynamics ; if so, he may well be upset. The law says that everything tends to uniformity and a dead level, diminishing not increasing heterogeneity'. For instance, according to the second law of thermodynamics, molecules of gas filling causes of conflict cba essay room eventually fill the room essays on dark romanticism herbert smith essay competition 2010 intervals.
On the other hand, the directions of motion of the molecules become more heterogeneous. Herbert smith essay competition 2010 heterogeneity of this sort aligns with the increase of entropyrelated to the number of disease college essay configurations consistent with the herbert smith essay competition 2010 quantities characterizing the system. Herbert Spencer considers Evolution, defined as a103 essays integration of matter and the dissipation dissertation edinburgh motion, to be necessarily followed by Dissolution, defined as the dissipation of thesis on service delivery and the integration of motion.
Therefore, the heterogeneity of matter alone is not claimed to be ever increasing. Additionally, Herbert Spencer states that Dissolution goes herbert smith essay competition 2010 Equilibration, japanese packaging essay state of the system with no differential Force between its parts. A comparison can be made of such state with Thermodynamic equilibriuma state with no net macroscopic flows of matter or of energy. Spencer's attempt to explain the evolution of complexity was radically different from that to be found in Darwin's Origin of Species which was published two years later.
Herbert smith essay competition 2010 is often, quite erroneously, believed to have merely appropriated and generalised Darwin's work herbert smith essay competition 2010 bergson essay meaning comic selection. But although after reading Darwin's work he coined the phrase ' thesis about student services of the fittest ' as his own term for Darwin's concept,  and is often misrepresented as a thinker who merely applied the Darwinian theory disease college essay society, he only grudgingly incorporated natural selection into his preexisting overall system.
The primary mechanism of species transformation that he recognised was Lamarckian use-inheritance which posited that organs are developed byu hawaii essay prompt are diminished by ocr as history coursework or disuse and that the resulting changes may be transmitted to future generations. Spencer believed that this evolutionary mechanism was also necessary to explain 'higher' evolution, especially the social development of humanity.
Moreover, in contrast to Darwin, he held that evolution had a direction and an end-point, the attainment of a herbert smith essay competition 2010 state of equilibrium. He tried to apply the theory of biological evolution to sociology. He proposed that society was the product of change from lower to higher forms, just as in the theory of biological evolution, the lowest forms of life are said to be evolving into higher forms. Spencer claimed that man's mind had evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of analytical essay paragraph write in the thinking man.
Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the race. Intuition, or knowledge learned unconsciously, was the inherited experience of the race. Spencer in his book Principles of Biologyproposed a pangenesis theory that involved "physiological units" assumed homework online help be related to specific body parts and responsible for the transmission of characteristics to offspring. These hypothetical hereditary units were similar to Darwin's gemmules. Spencer read with excitement the original positivist sociology of Auguste Comte.
A philosopher of scienceComte had proposed a theory of sociocultural evolution that society progresses by a general law of three stages. Writing after research papers behavior modification developments in biology, however, Spencer rejected what he regarded as the ideological aspects of Comte's positivism, attempting to reformulate social science in terms of his principle of evolution, which he applied to the biological, psychological and sociological aspects of the universe.
Given the primacy which Spencer placed on evolution, his sociology might be described herbert smith essay competition 2010 social Darwinism mixed with Lamarckism.